In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Salah - The Muslim Prayer


There are five daily prayer services participation in which is obligatory. This may seem a little too much, but it is all a matter of comparative values. Those who realize the true value of prayer through experience are convinced that time spent in it is occupied much more beneficially than that spent in other pursuits.

Diagram showing Timings of Daily Prayers

Fajr - the morning prayer.

Zuhr - the early afternoon prayer.

'Asr - the late afternoon prayer.

Maghrib - the sun-set prayer.

'Isha - the night prayer.


Each of the Salah must be offered at or during its proper time. No Salah can be said before its time.



Importantly, the times when Muslims must not perform Salah(prayer) which are:

  • From the beginning of sunrise until 15-20 minutes later.
  • When the sun is at its height (Zenith or Meridian).
  • From the beginning of sunset until it is fully set.


Salah is composed of the Fard (obligatory), Sunnah (non-obligatory) Prophet Muhammad (SAW) prayed extra raka'ats in addition to Fard prayers.  Muslims also pray additional Raka'ats other than Fard and Sunnah.  These are called Nafilah (optional).


Name of Salah
Number of Sunnah before Fard
Number of Fard
1st two Raka'at, recite aloud or silent
Number of Sunnah after Fard
Number of Nafilah
Total Number of Salah






































There is no ordained priesthood in Islam. Every Muslim can be Imam (who leads congregational prayer) and can deliver a sermon. The members of the congregation may select, and for this purpose, they should choose one from among themselves who knows the Holy Qur'an better than the others. No vestment is prescribed for the Imam nor any special dress for the congregation. All that needed is:

1. DRESS - Before offering your Salah make sure that you are properly dressed. For men and boys, the dress should be such that it covers their bodies from the navel to the knees at least.

Women are required to cover themselves from head to foot, leaving only the face and hands uncovered. The dress for Salah must be clean and free from all filth. During the monthly period women are free from obligation of Salah.


2. PLACE - Where ever a man might be, he can turn towards Allah(swt) in Salah and in devotion. The prophet has said, "The (the whole of the) earth has been rendered for me a Masjid (mosque): pure and clean".

Preferably Salah is to be offered in Jama'at congregation. Whenever possible, one should pray facing the Ka'bah, Makkah.


NOTE: If you are sick, you may offer your Salah in a sitting position or lying in bed, by making signs in place of the physical movements.



When you are sure that you have fulfilled all the necessary conditions for Salah, you ready to offer Salah.

When you begin the Salah (after 'Adhan, or call to prayer is given):

(1) Make Niyyah or intention in your mind to the effect that you are offering such and such Salah. It is not necessary to say the words verbally.

(2) Raise your hands up to your ears in a way that palms face Qiblah( Ka'aba), and the ends of the thumbs either touch the lobes of the ears or come parallel to them. The rest of the fingers stay straight pointing upwards.

(3) Takbiratul Ehram

Lift both hands up to the ears and pronounce Takbir:

"Allahu Akbar" (Allah is Greatest)


Note: Ladies lift their hands up to their shoulders only as shown.



NOTE: To say Allahu Akbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory. It is also necessary that these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. If a person pronounces these words incorrectly, or utters their translation, it will not be valid. It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbiratul Ehram, his body is steady, if he pronounces Takbiratul Ehram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.


When you are standing:

Then placing both hands slightly below the navel, and then using the thumb and the little finger of your right hand, make a circle round the wrist of your left hand and hold it. You should then spread out the three remaining finger of your Right hand on the neck of your left hand so that these fingers face the elbow.

(1) If you are making your Salah alone, or leading it as Imam you recite thana'subhanaka Allahuma... then Surah al-Fatihah, then some other Surah of Holy Qur'an. If you are behind an Imam, you only recite thana':subhanaka Allahuma... and then stand silent, listening attentively to the recitation of the Imam. Note: When the Imam says "wa-lad-dallin", he says "Amin", and the followers also say it (all of them).

(2) When you are reciting yourself, it is better that you, while reciting Surah al-Fatihah, stop at every verse and break your breath. Recite the next verse in a single breath. But, there is no harm if, during recitation that follows, more than one verse has been recited in a single breath. Note: After reading Surah al-Fatihah you can read a full surah or three verses of any surah you wish.

(3) Do not move any part of your body without the need. In peace the more, the better. If you have to scratch or do something else like that, use only one hand and that too, under very serious compulsion using the least time and effort.

(4) Transferring the weight of the body on to one leg and leaving the other weightlessly loose to the limit that it shows a certain bend is against the etiquette of Salaat. Abstain from it. Either you transfer your body weight equally on both legs or if you must channel your body weight on one leg, you have to do it in a way that the other leg shows no bend or curve.

(5) If you feel like yawning, try your best to stop it.

(6) When standing for Salah, keep your eyes looking at the spot where you making your Sajdah. Abstain from looking to your right and left, or front.



Note: Ladies placing their hands on their chest.




After reciting Surah al-Fatihah, then some other Surah of Holy Qur'an.THEN DO TAKBIR ("Allahu Akbar" ) AND GO TO RUKU.


When in Ruku': Watch out for the following:-

(1) Bend the upper part of your body up to point where the neck and back nearly level up. Do not bend any more less than that.

(2) While in Ruku' do not bend the neck to the limit that the chin starts touching the chest, nor raise it so high that the neck goes higher than the waist level. Instead, the neck and the waist should be in one level.          

(3) In Ruku' keep feet straight.Do not place them with an outward or inward slant.

(4) Place both hands on your knees in a way that fingers of both hands stay open(spread). In other words, there should be space between fingers when you go on to hold the right knee with your right hand and left knee with your left hand.

(5) In the state of Ruku', wrists and arms should remain stretched straight. They should not bend, curve or sag.

(6) Stay in Ruku' at least for a time during which Subhana Rabbiyal 'Azim (Glory to my Lord, the great), could be said three times calmly and comfortably.

(7) Stay in Ruku' the eyes should be looking towards the feet.

(8) Body weight should be evenly distributed on both feet and both knees should be parallel to each other.



Note: Posture for ladies in Ruku' is slightly different to that man.


Returning to the standing position from Ruku' :

(1) While returning from Ruku',back to the standing position. Say: "Sami-Allahu Liman Hamidah" ( Allah has heard all who praise Him). See that you stand straight leaving no sag or droop in the body. Then Say: "Rabbana Lakal Hamd (Our Lord, Praise be to Thee)".

Note:If you are behind an Imam, you don't have to Say : 'Sami-Allahu Liman Hamidah'.


(2) Above position the eyes should be fixed on the spot where you do your Sajdah.


Note: Notice, ladies feets and hands.





When bowing down for Sajdah:

Say: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest)" and then go to Sajdah. Remember the following method when bowing down for Sajdah.

(1) Bending the knees first. Take them towards the prayer floor in a way that the chest does not lean forward. When the knees have already been rested on the floor, the chest should then be lowered down.

(2) Until such time that the knees have come to rest against the floor. Abstain, as far as possible, from bending or lowering the upper part of the body.

(3) After having rested your knees on the floor, place your hands first, then the tip of the nose, then the forehead.


In Sajdah:

(1) While in Sajdah, keep your head in between your two hands in a way the ends of the two thumbs come parallel to the ear-lobes.

(2) In Sajdah, fingers on both hands should remain close together, that is , the fingers should adjacent to each other leaving no space in between them.


(3) The direction of the fingers should be towards the Qiblah.

(4) The elbows should stay raised off the floor. It is not correct to rest the elbows on the floor.

(5) Both arms should stay apart from armpits and sides. Never keep them tucked in.

(6) Do not, at the same time, poke your elbows far out to your right and left causing discomfort to those making Salah next to you.

(7) The thighs should not come in contact with the stomach wall. The stomach and the thighs should stay apart.

(8) During the entire Sajdah, the nose-tip should continue to rest on the floor.

(9) Both feet should be placed upright on the floor with heels showing on top and all fingers turner turned flat on the floor in the direction of the Qiblah. Those who cannot turn all their fingers because of the physical formation of their feet, they will still do well to turn them as much as they can. It is not correct to place the fingers vertically on the floor just for no valid reason.

(10) Be careful that your feet do not lift off the floor during Sajdah.

(11) In the stage of Sajdah, the least time you can give yourself should be sufficient enough to say Subhana Rabbiyal A'ala(Glory to my Lord, the most high) three times , calmly and comfortably.

Note: Raising the forehead immediately after having rested it on the floor is prohibited.

Note: Ladies are more tucked in.


In between the two Sajdahs and rising from it:

(1) Rising from the first Sajdah, say: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest)" Rise the forehead off the floor, then the nose-tip, then the hands followed by the knees and then sit up straight, on the hams, calmly and comfortably.

(2) While sitting, both hands should be placed on the thighs but fingers should not taper down onto the knees, instead, the far ends of the finger tips should reach only as far as the beginning edge of the knee.

(3) While sitting, let your eyes be on the lap.

(4) Spread out the left foot (like the blade of a hockey stick) and sit on it. Let the right foot stand vertically with fingers turned towards the Qiblah.

(5) Sit for a time during which 'Subhan Allah' could be said at least once and if you can sit for a time during which 'Allahum-Magfirli-Warhamni-Wahdhini-Warzukni' could be recited, it is better. Then saying : "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest)" go for the second Sajdah. The complete form of Sajdah should be the same as mentioned in connection with the first Sajdah.


Note: Doing the second Sajdah after rising the head just a little bit and without becoming straight is a sin.

Once the second Sajdah have been completed. say: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest)" and then rise back to your standing position again. This completes one Raka'at of Salah. The second rak'ah is said in the same way except that after the second Sajdah you sit back (Qa'dah).


Above picture, sitting position for females.


In Qa'dah:

(1) The method of sitting in Qa'dah shall be the same as mentioned in connection with the method of sitting between Sajdahs.






(2) When you reach 'Ashhadu-Allah-Ilaha-illallahu' (I bear witness to the fact that there is no deity but, Allah). While reciting raise the Shahadah finger (the fore-finger or the index finger) with a pointing motion and let it fall back.

(3) The method of making a pointing motion is that you make a circle by joining your middle finger and the thumb, close the little finger and the ring-finger(the one next to it), then raise the Shahada finger in a way that is tapered towards in the Qiblah. Note: It should not be raised up straight in the direction of the sky.

(4) However, lower the Shahadah finger while saying 'Ilallahu' but retain, right through the end, the initial formation of the rest of the fingers you already had when making the pointing motion.

In a three raka'at(i.e Magrib) or four rak'ah (like Zuhr,'Asr and 'Isha) Salah you stand up for the remaining raka'at after Tashahhud. On the other hand if it is a two raka'at (Fajr) Salah, keep sitting and after this recite Darud (blessing for the Prophet) in these words:

Allahumma Salli 'Ala Muhammadi Wa 'Ala Ali Muhammadin....

O Allah, exalt Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad......

Allahumma Barik 'Ala Muhammadi....

O Allah, bless Muhammad.....

Then can recite what ever invocations, such as resemble the words of the Qur'an and the transmitted invocations. He should not recite invocations which resemble the speech of mankind [amongst themselves].

Then turn your face for Salam...


When turning for Salam:

(1) When turning for Salam on both sides, you should turn your neck just enough that your cheeks become visible to the person sitting behing you.

(2) When turning for Salam, eyes should be towards the shoulders.

Salam to your rightSalam to your left(3) When turning your neck to the right to say : "As-salamu 'alaykum wa-rahmatullah" Peace be on you and Allah's blessings. Make intention that you are offering your Salam greetings to all human beings and angels on your right. Similarly, while turning for Salam to your left, have the same intention.


This completes your two raka'at Salah. The four raka'at of Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha are said in an identical manner with the only difference that in the first two raka'at (Fard) of Zuhr and 'Asr, Al-Fatihah is said silently while in Fajr, Maghrib, 'Isha, prayer it is recited ALOUD. For more detail check the TABLE above.

If you are performing a three raka'at(Magrib) or four raka'at(Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha) Salah stand up after Tashahhud saying "Allahu Akbar(Allah is Greatest)" and recite Surah al-Fatihah. You must remember that Surah al-Fatihah is always recited silently in the third and fourth raka'at of every Salah. When you are offering Fard Salah, do not recite any additional passage from the holy Qur'an after al-Fatihah in the last two raka'at. After the second Sajdah in the fourth rak'ah say the Tashahhud, Darud and end with "As-salamu 'alaykum wa-rahmatullah" Peace be on you and Allah's blessings to each side (first right, then left as shown in the above pictures).This marks the end of Salah.



The three rak'ah prayers said after the Fard and Sunnah of the 'Isha is called Salat-ul-Witr. It is strongly recommended in the practice of the Holy Prophet and is Wajib(necessary) according to one section of Muslims. Others regard it a mere Sunnah Salah.

The first two rak'ah of this Salat-ul-Witr are said like the first two rak'ah of the Magrib prayers. In the third rak'ah after Al-Fatihah, recite some additional Surah or verses of the Qur'an. Then, saying "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest)" raise your hands to your ears, fold your hands and recite Du'a al-Qunut:

Allahumma Inna Nasta Inuka.....



The believers are advised to remember to ask Allah's forgiveness for their sins, because no one is free from sin and it is only Allah(swt) who can forgive the sins of men. If one does not seek forgiveness, he will become a truly evil individual destined for Hell. It is a part of man's nature to make mistakes, or as the

Prophet said,"All of Adam's descendants habitually err, but the best of them are the habitually repentant." Reported by Anas ibn Maalik [Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]

That is, those who constantly seek Allah's forgiveness whenever they sin, are the best of mankind.

The method of Du'a:

Both hands be raised high enough so that they come in front of the chest. Let there be some space between the two hands. Do not bring the hands close together nor keep them apart. Keep the inner side of the hands turned towards your face.


Allah subhanwata'ala knows best.




Play the Flash VIDEO and see how to perform Salah.





Pray As You Have Seen Me Pray

    Pray As You Have Seen Me Pray is a documentary style educational film that teaches you the basics of prayer. It contains the following: The Night Journey (Isra' wal-Mi'raj) The story of the Miraculous Night Journey in which the prayer was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from Allah (swt). General Hygiene (Taharah) Muhammad (pbuh) said that cleanliness is one half of faith. The Ablution (Wudu) A prerequisite of prayer is washing the parts of the body as ordered by Allah (swt) and taught by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Dry Ablution (Tayammum) If water is not available then one may perform a dry ablution. Bathing (Ghusl) Bathing is required in the manner taught by Muhammad (pbuh) in certain circumstances. The Prayer (As-Salah) All one needs to know about the prayer including: The importance of prayer, leaving the prayer, prerequisites of prayer, a detailed two units (Rak'at) of prayer, a step by step guide to performing three & four units of prayer and general points about Prayer. Medical Benefits of Prayer & Ablution The medical world is continuously finding amazing benefits from performing prayer and ablution.


  • Download FLV (279 MB)


Prostration Due To Forgetfulness In The Prayer – Sujood As-Sahw

Muhammad ibn Saleh al-Othaimeen | Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: 23 | Size: 1 MB

Then many people are ignorant about many of the rulings concerning the Sujoodus-Sahw (prostration for forgetfulness) in the prayer. Some of them leave the Sujoodus-Sahw when it is obligatory upon them; others perform the prostration in other than its correct place; some perform it before the salaam (salutation at the end of the prayer) even in cases when’ it has to be performed after the salaam; others prostrate after the salaam even when it should be performed before it. Therefore, it is very important to become aware of its rulings, especially for the Imaams whom the people follow in their prayers, and who have therefore taken on the responsibility of following that, which is correct and prescribed in their prayers, and of leading the Muslims upon that. So I wished to put before my brothers some of the rulings in this regard, hoping that Allaah, the Most High, will cause it to be of benefit to His believing servants.





Performing Wudu (Ablution) / Ghusl / Tayammum.

Adhan (Call to Prayer).

Salah (Muslim Prayer) / Forbidden Time.

Salah on Specific Occasions.


Virtues of Salah.